India is enriched in diversity of flora since ages. The ancient professionals have kept records of their work related to the plants. These works are a source of research today. Sariva is a well known herb since it is most commonly used in Ayurveda for its various therapeutic uses. Later on controversies erupt as locals in different parts of India used different plant species are considered in the name Sariva across India. From the data available, four species are being used as sariva in different regions. Hemidesmus indicus is a botanical name of true sariva. Cryptolepis buchanani and Ichnocarpus are also collectively known as Sariva in ayurveda. In south India Decalepis hamiltonii is being used as true Sariva. Sariva is a widely used herbal drug in the management of cognitive disorders from the times of Aacharya Charaka till today. Hemidesmus indicus, also known in ancient Ayurvedic medicine as "Sugandi" or "Sariva", has been revealed for its medicinal properties since nearly a thousand years. True Sariva traditionally used in various preparations. There is a greater chance of real material been adulterated or substituted by similar looking, cheaper material. Therefore present study is launched to carry out a complete pharmacognostic evaluation of Hemidesmus indicus and its possible adulterants or substitutes which are being used as true sariva in different regions of India. These diagnostic characters will be useful to screen out original crude drug material at the point purchasing.