Vertigo is a symptom and not a disease, and it accounts for about 5% of all consultations with a general practioner and 10-15% with an otorhinolaryngologist.
Elderly patients complaining vertigo due to so many reasons. Threesystems in the body the visual, vestibular, & proprioceptive act in concern to maintain stable orientation.
In this mini review, enlighten the variety of diseases which causes vertigo. here also focused on pathophisiology and key features of these disorders which causes imbalance which involves otological problems, Visual problems, Locomotive system of disturbance(proprioceptive system),CNS,Cardiovascular system.
Peripheral causes are those lesions of the end organs and vestibular nerve, and it includes
Menieresdisease, Labyrinthitis,Acoustic neuron, ototoxicvertigo, Syphilis(vertigo with deafness) and Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Vestibular neuronitis(vertigo without deafness).Central causes are lesions of brainstem and central connections, posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome,vertebrobasilarinsufficiency, Basilar artery migrane,Tumours of the brainstem and fourth ventricle,Epilepsy,Cervical vertigo.