Bhagandara is defined as suppurative condition commonly affecting the Bhaga’ (ano rectal, Pelvirectal or perianal region) which can be correlate with “Fistula-in-ano” as per western medical science. It is a common disease and notorious disease occurring in the ano-rectal region. Acharya Sushruta, the father of surgery has included this disease as one among the Ashtamahagadas and also categorized Bhagandara under Dushtavrana. The main cause or nidana of Bhagandara is infective in nature mainly involving the infected and inflamed condition of a crypt of Morgagni and infection from a hair-follicle. At first it present as Pidika around Guda and when it bursts out, it is called as Bhagandara. It is recurrent nature of the disease which makes it more and more difficult for treatment. It produces inconveniences in routine life. It causes discomfort and pain that creates problem in day to day activities. In this present review article describes pathophysiology, investigate modalities and treatment option for fistula in ano in Ayurveda and Western medical science.
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