Vikar Darshan Pariksha (examination of pathology by inspection) is one of the important clinical method mentioned by Acharya Sushruta while examining the patient. Inspection is an active process. It is done with the eyes and the intellect. As per Acharya Sushruta, Built, features, Power, Colour, Pathology etc. should be examined by external inspection [S.Su.10/5]. Another less explored but equally important aspect of inspection examination is the internal inspection of pathologies through endoscopic procedures. Review of literature shows that Acharya Sushruta had described various diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures like Kantha Weekshan (Oropharyngoscopy) for viewing and removing throat pathologies and foreign bodies [S.Su. 27/17-18], Nasa Weekshan (Rhinoscopy) for viewing and removing the nasal polyp and tumor [S.Su. 8/14], Arsha Weekshan (Proctoscopy) for viewing and removing pile mass'S.Chi. 6/4 & 11], Bhagandar Weekshan (Fistula in Ano Scope) for viewing the track and for application of the medication. Today is the era of minimally invasive procedures. With the help of endoscopic procedures not only diagnosis of the disease is done but also the various therapeutic procedures such as band ligation of oesophageal varices in patients of cirrhosis of liver etc are done. In conclusion, it is observed that the endoscopic procedures have been well documented in Ayurvedic science before they come into practice in modern medicine. Endoscopic procedures are important in diagnosis as well as in the treatment of the internal pathologies.
2. â€˜Ashtang Sangrahaâ€™ translated by Vaidya Lalchand shastri, Published by Shree, Baidynath Prakashan, Nag Road, Nagpur â€“ 440009
3. â€˜Sushrut Samhitaâ€™ with â€˜Nibandhasangrahâ€™ commentary by Dalhan published by Chaukhamba Surbharati, Gopal Mandir lane,Varanasi-221001
4. Lieberman (2001) N Engl J Med 345:555-60
5. Modlin,Farhadi-Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 2000.
6. Bozzini (1806) "Lichtleiter, eine Erfindung zur Anschauung innerer Teile und Krankheiten, nebst der Abbildung" (Light conductor, an invention for examining internal parts and diseases, together with illustrations), Journal der practischen Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst (Journal of Practical Medicine and Surgery), 24 : 107-124.
7. The utility of the endoscope as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of disease" by Francis Richard Cruise. The Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science. February 1, 1865.
8. Edmonson JM (1991). "History of the instruments for gastrointestinal endoscopy".Gastrointestinal endoscopy. 37 (2 Suppl): S27â€“S56. doi 10.1016/S0016-5107(91)70910-3. PMID2044933.
9. "Endoscopy". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
10. American Gastroenterological Association, "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question" (PDF), Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation , American Gastroenterological Association archived from the original (PDF) on August 9, 2012, retrieved August 17, 2012.